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David Lark
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In recent years, sub/supercritical water was introduced in extract shale oil and gas from oil shale, and many scholars have increasingly focused on its effect on thermal conversion behavior and hydrocarbon generation from kerogen. Ma et al. investigated the hydrous pyrolysis mechanism of Liushuhe oil shale in an autoclave and found that the initial pyrolysis temperature increased by 70 C and the generation of hydrocarbons became easier in the presence of water.23 Wang et al. selected subcritical water to extract Huadian oil shale under isothermal conditions and determined the optimum reaction conditions. They demonstrated that the atomic H/C of bitumen reached the maximum value when the extraction time was 15 h and macromolecular hydrocarbons cracked into smaller ones, which was attributed to the catalytic process and solvent effect of subcritical water.24 Lewan et al. compared the pyrolysate characteristics of Mahogany oil shale in subcritical water and an anhydrous closed system, = and revealed that subcritical water could extract 29% more hydrocarbons and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons at 350 C than the anhydrous system, which is attributed to the dissolution of bitumen in the water and the supply of hydrogen to stabilize the products of thermal cracking, promoting the discharge of immiscible oil.25 Harfi et al. adopted supercritical water to extract Timahdit oil shale and concluded that increasing the extraction temperature could enhance the yields of aromatics and paraffins and reduce the content of asphaltenes.26 Nasyrova et al. studied the effects of subcritical and supercritical water on the generation of hydrocarbons from Domanic shale rocks and showed that the yields of light hydrocarbons (saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons) in the shale oil increased from 33.98% to 39.63% and 48.24%, respectively.27




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